Dehydration synthesis or a condensation reaction (video) | Khan Academy
Answer to Explain, in terms of dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis reactions, the relationship between starch in an ingested potato, liver glycogen, and blood. The difference between a polar (water) and nonpolar (ethane) molecule is due to the . Condensation involves a dehydration synthesis because a water is removed .. Large Molecules Problem Set Biology Project (University of Arizona) . The Difference between Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis. Biosynthesis is essential in all living organisms – it is the integration of life.
Sucrose, a common plant disaccharide is composed of the monosaccharides glucose and fructose. Lactose, milk sugar, is a disaccharide composed of glucose and the monosaccharide galactose. The maltose that flavors a malted milkshake and other items is also a disaccharide made of two glose molecules bonded together as shown in Figure Formation of a disaccharide top by condensation and structure of two common disaccharides.
Polysaccharides are large molecules composed of individual monosaccharide units. A common plant polysaccharide is starch shown in Figure 12which is made up of many glucoses in a polypeptide these are referred to as glucans.
Two forms of polysaccharide, amylose and amylopectin makeup what we commonly call starch. The formation of the ester bond by condensation the removal of water from a molecule allows the linking of monosaccharides into disaccharides and polysaccharides. Glycogen see Figure 12 is an animal storage product that accumulates in the vertebrate liver. Images of starch topglycogen middleand cellulose bottom. Cellulose, illustrated in Figure 13 and 14, is a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls.
Cellulose forms the fibrous part of the plant cell wall. In terms of human diets, cellulose is indigestible, and thus forms an important, easily obtained part of dietary fiber.
As compared to starch and glycogen, which are each made up of mixtures of a and b glucoses, cellulose and the animal structural polysaccharide chitin are made up of only b glucoses.
The three-dimensional structure of these polysaccharides is thus constrained into straight microfibrils by the uniform nature of the glucoses, which resist the actions of enzymes such as amylase that breakdown storage polysaccharides such a starch.
Structure of cellulose as it occurs in a plant cell wall. This image is copyright Dennis Kunkel at www. Lipids are involved mainly with long-term energy storage. They are generally insoluble in polar substances such as water. Secondary functions of lipids include structural components as in the case of phospholipids that are the major building block in cell membranes and "messengers" hormones that play roles in communications within and between cells.
Lipids are composed of three fatty acids usually covalently bonded to a 3-carbon glycerol. Some examples of fatty acids are shown in Figure Fatty acids can be saturated meaning they have as many hydrogens bonded to their carbons as possible or unsaturated with one or more double bonds connecting their carbons, hence fewer hydrogens.
A fat is solid at room temperature, while an oil is a liquid under the same conditions. The fatty acids in oils are mostly unsaturated, while those in fats are mostly saturated.
Saturated top and middle and unsaturated bottom fatty acids. The term staurated refers to the "saturation" of the molecule by hydrogen atoms. Fats and oils function in long-term energy storage. Animals convert excess sugars beyond their glycogen storage capacities into fats. Most plants store excess sugars as starch, although some seeds and fruits have energy stored as oils e. Fats thus store six times as much energy as glycogen.
Diets are attempts to reduce the amount of fats present in specialized cells known as adipose cells that accumulate in certain areas of the human body. By restricting the intakes of carbohydrates and fats, the body is forced to draw on its own stores to makeup the energy debt.
Difference Between Hydrolysis and Dehydration Synthesis
The body responds to this by lowering its metabolic rate, often resulting in a drop of "energy level. Another use of fats is as insulators and cushions. The human body naturally accumulates some fats in the "posterior" area.
Subdermal "under the skin" fat plays a role in insulation. Phospholipids and glycolipids are important structural components of cell membranes. Phospholipids, shown in Figure 16, are modified so that a phosphate group PO4- is added to one of the fatty acids.
The addition of this group makes a polar "head" and two nonpolar "tails". Waxes are an important structural component for many organisms, such as the cuticle, a waxy layer covering the leaves and stems of many land plants; and protective coverings on skin and fur of animals. Structure of a phospholipid, space-filling model left and chain model right.
Most mention of these two types of lipids in the news is usually negative. Cholesterol, illustrated in Figure 17, has many biological uses, it occurs in cell membranes, and its forms the sheath of some types of nerve cells. However, excess cholesterol in the blood has been linked to atherosclerosis, hardening of the arteries.
Recent studies suggest a link between arterial plaque deposits of cholesterol, antibodies to the pneumonia-causing form of Chlamydia, and heart attacks. The plaque increases blood pressure, much the way blockages in plumbing cause burst pipes in old houses. Structure of four steroids.
Proteins are very important in biological systems as control and structural elements. Control functions of proteins are carried out by enzymes and proteinaceous hormones. Enzymes are chemicals that act as organic catalysts a catalyst is a chemical that promotes but is not changed by a chemical reaction. Click here for an illustrated page about enzymes. Structural proteins function in the cell membrane, muscle tissue, etc. The struucture of a generalized aminio acid as well as the specific structures of the 20 biological amino acids are shown in Figure 18 and 19 respectively.
The R indicates the variable component R-group of each amino acid. Alanine and Valine, for example, are both nonpolar amino acids, but they differ, as do all amino acids, by the composition of their R-groups. All living things and even viruses use various combinations of the same twenty amino acids. A very powerful bit of evidence for the phylogenetic connection of all living things.
Structure of an amino acid. Structures in the R-groups of the twenty amino acids found in all living things. Amino acids are linked together by joining the amino end of one molecule to the carboxyl end of another.
Removal of water allows formation of a type of covalent bond known as a peptide bond. This process is illustrated in Figure Formation of a peptide bond between two amino acids by the condensation dehydration of the amino end of one amino acid and the acid end of the other amino acid. The above image is from http: Amino acids are linked together into a polypeptide, the primary structure in the organization of proteins. The primary structure of a protein is the sequence of amino acids, which is directly related to the sequence of information in the RNA molecule, which in turn is a copy of the information in the DNA molecule.
Changes in the primary structure can alter the proper functioning of the protein. Protein function is usually tied to their three-dimensional structure. The primary structure is the sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide. The secondary structure is the tendency of the polypeptide to coil or pleat due to H-bonding between R-groups. The tertiary structure is controlled by bonding or in some cases repulsion between R-groups.
Tertiary structure of an HIV protein and its similarity to gamma interferon are shown in Figure Many proteins, such as hemoglobinare formed from one or more polypeptides. Such structure is termed quaternary structure. Structural proteins, such as collagen, have regular repeated primary structures. Like the structural carbohydrates, the components determine the final shape and ultimately function. Collagens have a variety of functions in living things, such as the tendons, hide, and corneas of a cow.
Keratin is another structural protein. It is found in fingernails, feathers, hair, and rhinoceros horns. Microtubules, important in cell division and structures of flagella and cilia among other thingsare composed of globular structural proteins. HIV p17 protein and similarities of its structure to gamma interferon.
Image is from http: Nucleic acids are polymers composed of monomer units known as nucleotides. There are a very few different types of nucleotides. Nucleotides, shown in Figure 22, consist of a sugar, a nitrogenous base, and a phosphate. The sugars are either ribose or deoxyribose.
Dehydration Synthesis And Hydrolysis | Types, Reactions, & Roles
They differ by the lack of one oxygen in deoxyribose. Both are pentoses usually in a ring form.
There are five nitrogenous bases. Purines Adenine and Guanine are double-ring structures, while pyrimidines Cytosine, Thymine and Uracil are single-ringed. Structure of two types of nucleotide.
We will learn more about the DNA structure and function later in the course click here for a quick look [actually take all the time you want! Structure of a segment of a DNA double helix.
DNA functions in information storage. The English alphabet has 26 letters that can be variously combined to form over 50, words. DNA has four letters C, G, A, and T, the nitrogenous bases that code for twenty words the twenty amino acids found in all living things that can make an infinite variety of sentences polypeptides. Changes in the sequences of these basesinformation can alter the meaning of a sentence. For example take the sentence: This implies certain knowledge that I've been out in the sun too long without a hat, etc.
If we alter the sentence by inverting the middle word, we get: I was Elvis thank you, thank you very much. Now we have greatly altered the information. A third alteration will change the meaning: Clearly the original sentence's meaning is now greatly changed.
Changes in DNA information will be translated into changes in the primary structure of a polypeptide, and from there to the secondary and tertiary structures. A mutation is any change in the DNA base sequence. Most mutations are harmful, few are neutral, and a very few are beneficial and contribute the organism's reproductive success. Mutations are the wellspring of variation, variation is central to Darwin and Wallace's theory of evolution by natural selection.
DNA, with exceptions in chloroplasts and mitochondria, is restricted to the nucleus in eukaryotes, the nucleoid region in prokaryotes.
CHEMISTRY II: WATER AND ORGANIC MOLECULES
RNA occurs in the nucleus as well as in the cytoplasm also remember that it occurs as part of the ribosomes that line the rough endoplasmic reticulum. There are three types of RNA: Details of RNA and its role in protein synthesis are available by clicking here. Structure of the RNA molecule. Adenosine triphosphate, better known as ATP Figure 25the energy currency or coin of the cell, transfers energy from chemical bonds to endergonic energy absorbing reactions within the cell.
Structurally, ATP consists of the adenine nucleotide ribose sugar, adenine base, and phosphate group, PO plus two other phosphate groups. This covalent bond is known as a pyrophosphate bond. A cartoon and space-filling view of ATP. Dissolved substances are called solutes; a fluid in which one or more substances can dissolve is called a solvent. Hence, biological catalysts, or enzymes that speed up chemical reactions are needed. Along with that, the type of dehydration synthesis is named after the catalyst that drive the reaction.
Based on the product formed As mentioned earlier, dehydration synthesis can produce a wide variety of polymer products. Therefore, these types of reactions are grouped whether they form complex carbohydrates from simple sugars, create fatty acids from Acetyl-CoA, and others.
Relative to the process of dehydration synthesis, hydrolysis is merely the reverse. Using water molecules complex molecules are broken down into smaller units. Large molecules are broken down by breaking the bond between water molecules.
Examples of hydrolytic reactions are the breaking down of complex sugars, proteins, complex fats, and nucleic acids into monosaccharides, amino acids, fatty acids, and nucleotides. Types of Hydrolysis Various types of hydrolysis occur in living organisms. The three types are listed below: Salt Hydrolysis This occurs when a salt when a salt is dissolved in water.
Acid Hydrolysis According to the Bronsted-Lowry theory, water can act as either an acid or a base. Base Hydrolysis In relation to what was mentioned above, the water molecule can act as a base and hydrolyze molecules.