Linguistics -- Lecture 7 -- Morphology
Define morphology and the other major subfields of linguistic theory. 44); " we must look at the syntactic relations which these words enter into. each of the following words should be considered a compound, using the tests of a.; cite. Study 36 Linguistics Quiz 1 flashcards from Zach E. on StudyBlue. including sign language, whereby there is no natural or intrinsic relationship knows about a language, including its phonology, morphology, syntax, semiotics, and lexicon. Compare the 2 sentences below: Jeg forstår ikke, hvorfor han ikke vil snakke med mig. I don't understand why he won't speak to me Does the.
It is important to recognize that, concerning items measuring abilities to decode referential morphology, intraclausal syntactic constructs, and interclausal syntactic constructs, the task posed questions probing the participants' abilities to process similar linguistic cues. In all three cases, a student needed to notice that a clause contained a null subject.
Yet, this is largely unavoidable when the TL is Spanish, since identifying syntactic constituents in Spanish requires one to consider the combination of a string's word order which, for Spanish, is a weak cue in any event since it is highly synthetic and its morphological cues. Still, if the data reveal that the learners' performance with these three factors was uniformly parallel, then it will be reasonable to conclude that the study failed to isolate the participants' knowledge of the constructs.
Otherwise, it will be reasonable to conclude that the study at least partially isolated the learner's abilities with each of these three constructs. The learners volunteering for the study were 36 third-year, university-level Spanish FL majors enrolled in an advanced composition course. The study took place five weeks into the Spring semester of A baseline group of 7 native speakers of Spanish also participated in the study's tasks.
Morphology and Syntax – callhavid
All native speakers were born and educated minimally, up through the high school level in a Spanish speaking country. The author utilized the results of the listening and grammar tasks to determine the extent to which these abilities might account for their performance on the assessment task. The assessment task was a computer-based instrument designed by the present author. Before the assessment task, the learners were told that the procedure assessed their abilities to comprehend aural Spanish.
The task involved 24 situations, 6 for each of the four targeted structures. Each situation consisted of a graphic and an aural description of 10 to 20 seconds.
For instance, a situation gauging knowledge of referential morphology might present the following graphic and a student would hear the passage below. Sample graphic from the assessment task and a transcription of its aural descriptor. Transcription of aural descriptor: As will be seen below, the analysis factored in possible effects for the frequency with which a participant listened to a given passage.
A participant saw the graphic while answering a question.Syntax vs Semantics (Philosophical Distinctions)
Because the targeted structures were arguably basic for third-year university-level FL learners e. First, graphic support facilitates comprehension greatly, and learners appear to use visual organizers to make predictions about the contents of an aural passage, especially if one's TL grammatical and lexical abilities are weak Omaggio, Thus, the researcher selected graphics that were vague with respect to their aural content.
For instance, in a situation targeting abilities to decode referential morphology, a graphic would represent the possible referents for a verbal inflection but it would not depict the referents' actions. Second, the aural passages contained abrupt topic changes. The following passage was supported by a graphic depicting a young man asking for the hand of a young lady in the presence of his parents: In the absence of a discourse marker indicating a topic change, social conventions would lead one to expect the subject of encontrar to be second-person singular i.
The assessment task posed all questions and provided answers in simple Spanish sentences and phrases, thus minimizing L1 transfer effects. The question corresponding to Figure 1 was: The following three sentences were the possible answers, with choice a being the targeted response: The analysis of the assessment task data utilized the results of the listening-comprehension exam and the multiple-choice grammar test to partially control for the effects of the participants' overall Spanish abilities.
The listening-comprehension task, completed immediately before the assessment task, was computer based and it measured the participants' abilities to decipher the main ideas and details of aural passages in Spanish. The participants listened to 16 authentic digital-video clips, 8 of which were short less than 10 seconds in all and 8 of which were long ranging between 20 to 30 seconds.
The application posed all questions in English and allowed the participants to choose one of three answers. The participants could not listen to a segment after having prompted its corresponding question. The multiple-choice grammar test was administered at the beginning of the semester in which the experiment was conducted.
Each of the members of the baseline native-speakers group completed the grammar test one week prior to the assessment task. The grammar test assessed the participants' abilities to complete sentences with appropriate verb forms, pronouns, conjunctions, prepositions, and a variety of other miscellaneous items.
An examination of the participants' performance on the 24 assessment-task items revealed that, on some items, the participants performed poorly across the board. Accordingly, the author submitted the participants' scores to an item analysis, calculating for each item a discrimination value cf. Subsequently, the author trimmed down the analysis to 12 reasonably discriminating items, with each of the 4 targeted structures being represented by 3 items. Since the length of the aural passages for items on the assessment task varied from 10 to 20 seconds, the author conducted two additional analyses on the 12 remaining experimental items.
Give evidence for and against. Should words like bridegroom, hiccough, magpie, pullover, and lord be considered compounds? Discuss these and other such problematic examples in detail. Discuss in detail criteria for distinguishing compounds from syntactic constructions, and problems that arise from relying on any single criterion: Ausmachen Consider whether or not or the extent to which each of the following words should be considered a compound, using the tests of Chapter 6 - Morphemes and allomorphs How did the view of the morpheme held by the Neo-Bloomfieldians differ from that held by Bloomfield himself?
In summarizing the two views, M. Answering this question involves distinguishing among three views of the morpheme. Using examples, distinguish between contrastive and complementary distribution of phones. Distinguish between the phonological and morphological conditioning of alternations. Summarize Turkish vowel harmony in a few succinct prose statements.
Is one more or less linear or sequential than the other? Do both involve morphemes? One question we need to ask ourselves is: What is a word? We've started talking blithely about words and morphemes as if it were obvious that these categories exist and that we know them when we see them.
This assumption comes naturally to literate speakers of English, because we've learned through reading and writing where white space goes, which defines word boundaries for us; and we soon see many cases where English words have internal parts with separate meanings or grammatical functions, which must be morphemes. In some languages, the application of these terms is even clearer. In languages like Latin, for example, words can usually be "scrambled" into nearly any order in a phrase.
As Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar says, "In connected discourse the word most prominent in the speaker's mind comes first, and so on in order of prominence. However, the morphemes that make up each of these two words must occur in a fixed order and without anything inserted between them.
Among many others, the modern Slavic languages such as Czech and Russian show a similar contrast between words freely circulating within phrases, and morphemes rigidly arranged within words. In such languages, the basic concepts of word and morpheme are natural and inevitable analytic categories.
In a language like English, where word order is much less free, we can still find evidence of a similar kind for the distinction between morphemes and words. For example, between two words we can usually insert some other words without changing the basic meaning and relationship of the originalswhile between two morphemes we usually can't. In accordance with this, we can introduce other material into the white space between the words: And there are other forms of the sentence in which the word order is different -- "has she arrived?
Tests of this kind don't entirely agree with the conventions of English writing. For example, we can't really stick other words in the middle of compound words like swim team and picture frame, at least not while maintaining the meanings and relationships of the words we started with.
A recent and controversial official spelling reform of German make changes in both directions splitting some compounds orthographically while merging others: As this change emphasizes, the question of whether a morpheme sequence is written "solid" is largely a matter of orthographic convention, and in any case may be variable even in a particular writing system.
English speakers feel that many noun-noun compounds are words, even though they clearly contain other words, and may often be written with a space or a hyphen between them: These are common combinations with a meaning that is not entirely predictable from the meanings of their parts, and therefore they can be found as entries in most English dictionaries. But where should we draw the line? What about say government tobacco price support program?