Francesco Petrarch - Father of Humanism
Petrarch was born in the Tuscan town of Arezzo, where his family had taken known to us only by her first name, Laura, in a church in Avignon. and it is uncertain whether Petrarch ever had a physical relationship with her. logical ordering problem of Petrarch's poems. Jones concentrated on Petrarch's poems written at lifetime of Laura (the first, sonnet X, was written in and the . Petrarch composed and revised the love lyrics inspired by Laura until his very . him into direct relationship with heads of state, including the emperor Charles IV. .. learning and his emphasis on moral problems seem to be modeled after the.
In Paris he was given a copy of the Confessions of St. Augustine by a friend and spiritual confidant, the Augustinian monk Dionigi of Sansepolcro, and he was to use this more and more as the breviary of his spiritual life.
By making a synthesis of the two seemingly conflicting ideals—regarding the one as the rich promise and the other as its divine fulfillment—he can claim to be the founder and great representative of the movement known as European humanism. He rejected the sterile argumentation and endless dialectical subtleties to which medieval Scholasticism had become prey and turned back for values and illumination to the moral weight of the Classical world.
In he visited Rome for the first time, to be stirred among its ruins by the evident grandeur of its past. Moral and literary evolution —46 Meanwhile, his reputation as a scholar was spreading; in September he received invitations from Paris and Rome to be crowned as poet. He had perhaps sought out this honour, partly from ambition but mainly in order that the rebirth of the cult of poetry after more than 1, years might be fittingly celebrated.
He had no hesitation in choosing Rome, and accordingly he was crowned on the Capitoline Hill on April 8,afterward placing his laurel wreath on the tomb of the Apostle in St.
From Rome he went to Parma and the nearby solitude of Selvapiana, returning to Avignon in the autumn of At any rate, this is a common reading of the Secretum meum — It is an autobiographical treatise consisting of three dialogues between Petrarch and St. Augustine in the presence of Truth. In it he maintains hope that, even amidst worldly preoccupations and error, even while absorbed in himself and his own affairs, a man might still find a way to God.
It was an evolution in his thinking that led him to break through the barriers of his too-exclusive admiration for antiquity and to admit other authoritative voices. Break with his past —53 The events of the next few years are fundamental to his biographyboth as a man and as a writer. Finally, in the jubilee year of he made a pilgrimage to Rome and later assigned to this year his renunciation of sensual pleasures.
In Verona in he made his great discovery of the letters of Cicero to Atticus, Brutus, and Quintus, which allowed him to penetrate the surface of the great orator and see the man himself. The letters spurred him on to write epistles to the ancient authors whom he loved and to make a collection of his own letters that he had scattered among his friends.
Each variable is multiplied by a constant factor, that weighs the importance of the variable over the total result; however, the article does not say how you should estimate the value of these variables. We guess that the only way to go is to write this equation in an Excel spreadsheet, play a little bit with the numbers and try to find the best combination that maximises the result.
She takes a more pragmatic approach and, instead of creating a magic formula, she uses a well-established mathematical tool, called Optimal Stopping Theory, to describe the best process to maximise the chances of finding the right partner.
According to Wikipedia, the optimal stopping theory is concerned with finding the best strategy to choose the time to take a particular action, in order to maximise an expected reward or minimise an expected cost. The model does not assure that you will meet that person, but it says that you are maximising the probability of finding the best match and have a satisfying relationship. This happened one night when he was in a bar with a group of friends watching a group of beautiful women and wondering what was the best strategy to court the most attractive of them.
In conclusion, you have a wealth of options to maximise your probability of finding a good partner. However, not very many models have been proposed about the dynamics of love in established couples. We know of only one model that tries to describe this phase of love stories.
Dr Sergio Rinaldi, an Italian professor, teaching in the Polytechnic of Milan, proposed in a peer-reviewed paper a system of ordinary differential equations to study the dynamics of love, once you have found a partner.
He calibrated his system on an extensively-described love story, the one between Petrarch, a celebrated Italian poet of the 14th century, and Laura, a beautiful but married lady. Petrarch's Secretum takes the form of a dialogue between the author and St. Augustinewho thus assumes the role of a spiritual guide or of the author's conscience.
And in the famous letter in which Petrarch describes climbing Mont Ventoux, he expresses his feelings by a quotation on which his eyes chanced to fall in his copy of Augustine's Confessions: Besides these and a few other general attitudes, there is at least one theoretical problem on which Petrarch formulates views akin to those of many later humanists.
He keeps asserting that man and his problems should be the main object and concern of thought and philosophy. This is also the justification he gives for his emphasis on moral philosophy, and when he criticizes the scholastic science of his Aristotelian opponents, it is chiefly on the grounds that they raise useless questions and forget the most important problem, the human soul.
Petrarch and the mathematics of love » Creme Global
This is also the gist of the words with which Petrarch describes his feelings when he had reached the top of Mont Ventoux. The words are Petrarch's, and they express his own ideas, but they are characteristically interwoven with quotations from Augustine and Seneca.
Petrarch expresses for the first time that emphasis on man which was to receive eloquent developments in the treatises of later humanists and to be given a metaphysical and cosmological foundation in the works of Marsilio Ficino and Giovanni Pico della Mirandola. This is the reason that the humanists were to adopt the name "humanities" studia humanitatis for their studies—to indicate their significance for man and his problems. Yet behind Petrarch's tendency to set moral doctrine against natural science, there are also echoes of Seneca and St.
Augustine and of Cicero's statement that Socrates had brought philosophy down from heaven to Earth. When Petrarch speaks of man and his soul, he refers at the same time to the blessed life and eternal salvation, adding a distinctly Christian overtone to his moral and human preoccupation. He thus comes to link the knowledge of man and the knowledge of God in a distinctly Augustinian fashion and also to discuss an important problem of scholastic philosophy that had its root in Augustine: In discussing this scholastic problem, Petrarch follows the Augustinian tradition, as other humanists and Platonists were to do after him, in deciding the question in favor of the will.
Petrarch, the great poet, writer, and scholar, is clearly an ambiguous and transitional figure when judged by his role in the history of philosophical thought. His thought consists in aspirations rather than developed ideas, but these aspirations were developed by later thinkers and were eventually transformed into more elaborate ideas.
His intellectual program may be summed up in the formula that he uses once in the treatise on his ignorance: Platonic wisdom, Christian dogma, Ciceronian eloquence.
His classical culture, his Christian faith, and his attack against Scholasticism all have a personal, and in a way modern, quality. At the same time everything he says is pervaded by his classical sources and often by residual traces of medieval thought. In this respect, as in many others, Petrarch is a typical representative of his age and of the humanist movement. He did not merely anticipate later Renaissance developments because he was unusually talented or perceptive; he also had an active share in bringing them about, because of the enormous prestige he enjoyed among his contemporaries and immediate successors.
Bibliography works by petrarch Petrarch's Italian poems have been printed in numerous editions and translations; see also Roberto Weiss, Un inedito Petrarchesco Rome, Of the Edizione nazionale of his collected works only six volumes have appeared, containing his poem Africa, a part of his letters—Le familiari, edited by V.
Niemeyer, ; and Petrarcas Briefwechsel mit deutschen Zeitgenossen, edited by P. The collection of Prose, edited by G. Milan and Naples,contains the Secretum, De Vita Solitaria, and selections from the invectives and other treatises. Capelli Paris,is the only complete modern edition of this important treatise. For many other Latin works of Petrarch the old edition of his works, Opera Basel,must still be used.