University–industry R&D linkage metrics: validity and applicability in world university rankings Our findings highlight conceptual and methodological problems with to the type of proximity relationship between universities and industry. . Proximity offers a rich conceptual framework and a sophisticated. framework is proposed, distinguishing university-industry relationships from other same vein, various concepts of 'interactive' innovation have been put themselves as network relationships, as opposed to 'arm-length', transactional market (Eds.), Industrializing knowledge: University-industry linkages in Japan and. Cespedes, F.V. () Managing Marketing Linkages: Texts, Cases and Readings. Davies, Iain A., Ryals, Lynette J. and Holt, Sue () Relationship management: a sales role, or a Industrial Marketing Management, 39 (7): – and performance among boundary-spanning teams: a conceptual framework and.
A contrast effect occurs when the evaluation of an object is moving away from a point of reference, while a judgment of an object that tends to move toward a contextual anchoring point is known as assimilation Meyers-Levy and Sternthal ; Sherif and Hovland In this case, a contrast effect would occur if an unknown brand enhances consumers' reactions to a known brand or if a known brand diminishes evaluations of an unknown brand when they are part of the same marketing strategy.
Conversely, assimilation would occur if a well known brand enhances evaluations of an unknown brand or if an unknown brand diminishes evaluations of a known brand. Research on brand extensions Loken and Roedder John and product bundling Gaeth et. That is, a consumer's affect toward one element may be transferred to the other element. It is possible that consumer evaluations of co-brands and dual brands will parallel these findings.
Fredrik Nordin - Stockholm University
A number of theories attempt to explain whether people will tend to contrast or assimilate pieces of information or attitudes Martin and Tesser One theory that predicts assimilation between attitudes is known as balance theory Heider We suggest that balance theory provides a reasonable explanation of the phenomena of interest, and predicts how consumers' separate attitudes toward brand names are reconciled in evaluating the combined brand package.
Heider's balance theory is one of a set of concepts known as cognitive consistency theories Schewe Congruity theory and cognitive dissonance also belong to this set of concepts. All three theories hold that individuals seek to maintain consistency or internal harmony among their attitudes, values and opinions Festinger ; Heider; McCaul, Ployhart, Hinsz, and McCaul ; Okechuku and Wang ; Osgood and Tannenbaum ; Schewe ; Tellis In the branding strategies previously described, the potential for disharmony between attitudes toward the two brands is a significant consideration.
A cursory reading of the popular business press illuminates the importance of preserving a brand's equity. Companies are battling the value conscious consumer of the 90's by combining two brands in an effort to create the perception of increased worth of the product Carpenter Pairing two brands creates the potential for linking a brand that has positive affect with one that has less positive - or even negative - affect.
In the present context, balance theory would predict assimilation; if an unknown or less preferred brand is paired with a well known brand, the consumer's evaluation of the unknown brand may be enhanced.
- Relationship marketing and university – industry linkages : A conceptual framework
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Conversely, and consistent with balance theory, we argue that it is also possible for the evaluation of a well known brand to be diminished when it is paired with an unknown or less preferred brand. Because balance theory is concerned with the direction of attitude change, it is possible to predict outcomes of combining positive, neutral, and negative brand names Heider These varying combinations can lead to different evaluations of the separate brand names as well as the resulting overall evaluation.
Balance theory will help us interpret results of the studies designed to address the research questions enumerated in the next section. Is the presence of an established brand name the most important element?
For example, is a brand's image apt to be impacted more by using it as part of a brand extension, dual branding, product bundling, or co-branding strategy? Research questions 2 and 3 represent perhaps the key issues to marketers. Balance theory provides the basis for specific hypotheses.
If a branding strategy includes addition of a brand that is evaluated unfavorably, then that brand will bring down the consumer's reaction to the strategy and will also damage the image of the brand that it is paired with. Conversely, if the added brand is evaluated favorably, then it will raise the consumer's evaluation of the strategy and will enhance the image of the original brand.
Thus, we state the following hypotheses: Evaluation of a co-branded product will be an average of the evaluation of the individual brands. A brand's equity will be enhanced by the addition of a brand that raises the evaluation of the strategy; a brand's equity will be diminished by the addition of a brand that lowers the evaluation of the strategy.
The following is an illustration of how such research questions and hypotheses may be addressed for a particular branding strategy. Later, we discuss applications to the other branding strategies of interest. Subjects were given a sample of brownie with chocolate chips to taste and asked first to rate the combination and then the separate component products.
All subjects were given the same combination of Martha White brownies with Nestle's chocolate chips. Although co-brands exist in this product category with two well-known brands Betty Crocker brownies with Nestle's chips, for examplean off-brand was chosen to minimize the possibility of a ceiling effect. Next, different subjects were provided different labels for the co-brand: Betty Crocker brownies with Nestle's chocolate chips, Betty Crocker brownies with Rich's chocolate chips a fictitious brandMrs.
Bakewell's brownies a fictitious brand with Nestle's chocolate chips, and Mrs. Bakewell's brownies with Rich's chocolate chips. In other words, we employed a 2 X 2 factorial design to manipulate whether the base product was designated as a well-known brand or as a fictitious brand and whether the supplemental product was designated as a well-known brand or as a fictitious brand. This design was intended to determine how each component brand affects the evaluations of the co-brand and, further, how variations of one brand affect evaluations of the other brand.
For example, if ratings of the brownies are higher when a well-known brand of chocolate chips is added than when an unknown brand is added, this would be a demonstration of assimilation effects. Procedure Seventy students from two Marketing classes at a large Southeastern university were told they were part of a taste-test study. Each student was given a 2-inch by 2-inch sample of the brownies with chips to taste and was asked to fill out a response booklet. In the booklet, the co-product was labeled as one of the four combinations described above.
The booklets with the different labels were given out in random order.
Participants were asked, first, to rate the taste, quality, and likelihood of purchase of the combined product. Subjects were then asked to rate only the brownie component and then only the chocolate chip component on each of the three scales.
It was stressed that these component ratings were designed to obtain their evaluations of the single products separate from their evaluations of the combined product co-brand. Results and Discussion Table 1 shows the mean composite ratings from the MANOVA also on a scale of 1 to 10 for each combination of product label and each type of judgment.
Ratings of the composite co-brand top of Table 1 show that the labeling of the supplemental product chocolate chips actually had a larger effect than the labeling of the base product brownie mix. Ratings of the base product, interestingly enough, were also affected more by the labeling of the supplemental product than by the labeling of the base product itself.
Substituting a fictitious brand name for the supplemental product apparently affected the evaluations of the base product. It is important to note here that these effects were demonstrated with relatively modest sample size and, more importantly, without varying the actual product experience. Participants in the different conditions tasted the same co-branded product; only the brand names were varied.
Even larger effects would be expected if, for example, the actual quality of the supplemental product was varied. More important than showing that labels affect evaluations of the composite co-branded product was showing that one brand's label affects evaluations of its co-brand. It is an empirical question as to whether other supplemental brands will have the same effect as chocolate chips in brownies. Future research should also include a control group who evaluates the separate products without experiencing them in combination.
Nevertheless, this demonstration showed that brand image can be affected by the co-branding strategy in a manner consistent with balance theory; when one brand chocolate chips was thought to be inferior, it brought down both the evaluations of the composite product and the evaluations of the other brand brownie mix.
Recall that studies of product bundling found that even an inexpensive tie-in product can have a disproportionate influence on evaluations of the bundle Gaeth et al. Given the similarity of the present findings to earlier studies of product bundling, an empirical link seems to be established between bundling and co-branding.
In general, however, studies of product bundling have not included measures of the impact on the image of the primary product. Future studies should include such measures. These basic design and measurement features can be extended to assess consumers' reactions to other branding strategies.
Pilot work would be necessary to identify distinct instances of each category. Subjects would then be asked to consider the various hypothetical combinations formed by factorially manipulating these two categories. Some of the combinations would be compatible in terms of brand recognition. For instance, a familiar and highly regarded ice cream company could be paired with a familiar and highly regarded pizza parlor. Others would be incompatible, high in one case and low in the other.
An additional independent variable of interest might be the distance saved in making a single trip to the joint location as compared to separate trips for pizza and ice cream.
And, of course, by broadening the categories one could examine the importance of complementarity of the dual brands: As with the co-branding illustration, a variety of scales could be used to assess the attractiveness and convenience of each dual brand.
Most basic, however, would be the consumer's judged likelihood of patronage. Finally, in order to assess whether brand image was affected by the dual branding strategy, each brand would be rated on scales such as quality and prestige after consumers reacted to that brand as part of a dual brand.
These ratings could then be compared to those obtained from a control group not exposed to the dual brands. Is the image of Pizza Hut enhanced by associating it with Ben and Jerry's?
What are the characteristics of alliances and associations in successful cases in this respect? Does the rural and agro-industrial sector have development policies that help to consolidate these linkages?
Have these linkages had a positive impact on the living standards of small producers? In order to answer these questions, the current project was carried out. It analysed different experiences in seven countries: Objectives The objectives of this paper are: Representativeness of different degrees of socio-economic development Latin American countries are grouped in different blocs by level of socio-economic development and commercial orientation.
These countries are characterized by a higher level of industrialization and trade. Argentina and Chile were chosen as being representative of this bloc. The Andean Bloc, formed by Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Venezuela, has a greater proportion of the rural population in the south of the continent.
The agriculture sector is an important source of currency for these countries, although there is a stronger orientation towards mining in Peru and Venezuela.
Colombia and Ecuador were chosen as being representative countries of this bloc in agribusinesses. Finally, the bloc of Central American countries, which are characterized by a large indigenous population, small economies with a significant agriculture sector and one of the most intensive linkages with the United States of America. Costa Rica, El Salvador and Guatemala were chosen as being representative of this group. The socio-economic specificities that influence the agribusiness sphere Historical events permeate the normative and institutional framework of each country and, simultaneously, the agribusiness environment.
Of the countries selected, Chile and Costa Rica are distinguished by the stability of their institutions that have facilitated both development of a market economy and foreign investment.
Some of the countries have overcome great conflict and civil war, e. El Salvador and Guatemala. Another characteristic of Central American countries is a high proportion of indigenous people in their populations.
Colombia has also suffered the consequences of armed conflict, with varying degrees of intensity. Guatemala and, in particular, El Salvador are interesting in terms of the peace processes they have implemented recently, as well as the incorporation of the marginalized rural population in agribusiness development projects.
In contrast, Colombia continues to deal with the effect of conflict in a general way, although its major impact is felt in the rural sector on all public and private contractual aspects. Preference was given to those cases where small producers had participated in the processes of sustainable organization.
During these processes, various forms of added value to the primary production have been incorporated inside the farm households or collectively into devices belonging to the organization. In general, in most countries, one case concerns small producers that sell mainly to export markets, and another case concerns domestic markets with sales to supermarket chains or other agents.
Selected cases in each country The cases selected for each country were: Moras del Oriente; 2: In Costa Rica 1: In El Salvador 1: Definition of agribusiness Agribusiness is defined as business expansion in the agriculture and rural sector and its chains, from relationships involving contracting structures, alliances and associations mainly carried out by the private sector, by producers of the agriculture sector that are sustainable in the long term.
In addition to a joint association of farmers, it involves various exogenous agents and agro-industrial chains, and may or may not include the support of public policies. The agreements aim to guarantee some basic conditions for advancing competitive production, such as development of chains of the productive processes mainly post-harvesttowards processing, marketing, supplying services to the chain, management and setting up links with final consumers.
Research methodology In order to undertake the research, the following procedure was carried out: The bibliography of case studies was revised; with a revision of the literature in terms of the agribusiness theme as well as entrepreneurial groups or clusters. The experience of the case studies was incorporated in project development. The cases were chosen according to their impact and their quality as proven examples of agribusiness linkages with small-scale producers.
There was usually prior documentation on the case; information was completed through interviews with different agents and beneficiaries that participate in the agribusiness agreement.
Consultants associated with the PRODAR who were in charge of the case studies in different countries sent a preliminary report, which was revised. Observations on the case were then made.
Planning the conceptual framework Various issues revolve around the topic of agribusiness as it relates to small producers: Do the producers participate in the growing expansion of rural agribusinesses? What are the endogenous aspects contributing to promoting and expanding this kind of intervention?
What is the direction of small producers' intervention in agribusinesses?
Which endogenous aspects contribute to promoting and expanding the agribusiness linkages starting from small producers? Which environment is advantageous or adverse for agribusiness linkages that involve small producers in respect of public and private policies and the macroeconomic environment? How are agribusiness linkages developed for small rural producers in the context of globalization? What are the impacts of these linkages on the living standards of small producers?
Before addressing these questions, the following paragraphs define some terms as they relate to agribusiness linkages. An agribusiness linkage is any link that, in addition to contributing to expanding businesses, is liable to be transformed into a contractual relationship even if it does not exist at the moment of conducting the study.
For example, the technical or business training provided either by government or the associative organization is liable to be turned into a linkage of a contractual character with the third party.
Relationship marketing and university – industry linkages : A conceptual framework
A nodal agribusiness linkage is one that organizes or is based on a network of agribusiness linkages, and generates a series of multiple agribusiness linkages. A secondary agribusiness link is one that does not have similar importance as it does not generate any other type of linkages.
An agribusiness matrix linkage is one that, although without a tangible presence in the organizational structure, is important as a source of a network of derived agribusiness linkages. In general, each linkage that signifies the creation and consolidation of sources of applicable innovation must have this matricial nature. An example of this agribusiness matrix linkage is one that is established to advance basic and applied research in agro-industrial or productive technology.
Strengthening agribusiness linkages with small-scale farmers
Moreover, such linkages are characterized by innovations in supplying services to production, such as technical development of a cold-chain infrastructure. They could also be institutional innovations that enable the creation of new forms of financing, such as reserve funds, investment funds and price-stabilization funds. The matrix linkage creates derived agribusiness linkages, e. This endogenous linkage is usually adopted by the associative organization.
A stable linkage has the capacity to secure or stabilize the agribusiness relationship and has lasting long-term and positive consequences in the way in which they are related to the associative organization and its producers in order to make progress in the productive processes. An example of this kind of linkage is one that promotes the development of technical or entrepreneurial skills that simultaneously require the use of higher levels of education and skills. This is the case of work applied in use and risk administration, in quality control and supply planning, among others.
An unstable linkage without fixation capacity is one that is created around a leader, without a supporting organizational structure. Various forces with great economic impact have affected the field of agribusiness. On the one hand, some technical advances have privileged the development of services and means of transportation and communications.
On the other hand, fiercer competition has emerged, no longer between individual businesses, but rather among groups of businesses gathered together as a cluster of corporative structures between which processes of property concentration are simultaneously growing. Technical change Agribusiness linkages could be classified as productive linkages or those referring to the processes of transformation, and service linkages of production management which usually correspond to processes and transaction costs.
The two types of linkages tend to be interrelated, and to be determined reciprocally that is, a great variety and number of productive linkages are required for more and different service linkages for the transaction of production. However, it is not necessarily a determined relationship.
In some of the cases analysed, linkages for negotiations are highlighted as a result of their organizational strength and capacity to attractive public-sector, private-sector or policy support. Agribusiness linkages become endogenous to the organization to the extent to which there is a clear promotion intervention by government or third parties.
This could mean that the direct management of services is transferred to the associative organization. For this, a necessary budget is allocated where the scale of operation so justifies it, and provided that the requirements of the market and the business environment require that new and secondary quality requirements be fulfilled.
On the other hand, exogenous linkages are maintained at the organization or where there is a favourable regional environment with diversity of horizontal chains, a for-profit business of limited scope, or where government contracts third parties. Technical exchange in the rural environment is shown in the development of the rural agro-industry through the generation of new chains for added value in the raw product within the associative organization.
This occurs by industrialization processes or by incorporating skilled work and services that add value, even to artisanal processes. In the second case, special market niches are promoted, with the emphasis on client service. The development of chains creates a favourable environment for agribusinesses as agents, services, enterprises and new labour and entrepreneurial skills are required.
The main problem that arises is how to introduce this development of new chains in rural societies. This subject matter is discussed below according to the case studies analysed.
Competition and new forms of integration Competition causes groups of enterprises to revise the way they are organized. It changes the profile of producers that are supported or, on the contrary, miss opportunities and perish.
In this way, competition promotes new processes of coordinated organization in which the free competitive market is substituted or complemented through contracts, agreements or chain integration at the property level.
This could make the competitive conditions much more efficient. In this competitive environment, the probability of continuing to be successful is practically non-existent for private enterprises that carry out activities at the margin of an organizational structure. These organizational structures are able to keep pace with growing competition through continual adoption of innovations, adjustments and negotiations in their environment.
In this way, the probability of success is distributed in a constantly growing proportion for the associative organization and according to the associate producer's performance. At the rural level, the associative organization corresponds to various types of structures. There are chain organizations with a high degree of vertical integration. This is the case with many cooperatives that differentiate processes spatially and can intervene in large-scale operations with industrialized processes.
There are also producers grouped spatially, not only by the primary but also the artisanal or semi-artisanal processes. In this case, they constitute rural ago-industry clusters.