Structure function relationship of chloroplast and mitochondria

Compare and Contrast: Chloroplasts and Mitochondria | Owlcation

structure function relationship of chloroplast and mitochondria

Chloroplasts and mitochondria need to import over 95% of their protein. Start studying Compare and Contrast mitochondria and chloroplasts. Mitochondria structures & chloroplasts similaraities. Both have: Mitochondria Functions. Structure and Function 2. What is Mitochondria – Structure and Function 3. What is the difference between Chloroplast and Mitochondria.

Outer Chloroplast Membrane The outer membrane of the chloroplast is semi-porous, allowing small molecules to diffuse easily. But large proteins are unable to diffuse. Therefore, proteins required by the chloroplast are transported from the cytoplasm by TOC complex in the outer membrane.

structure function relationship of chloroplast and mitochondria

Inner Chloroplast Membrane Inner chloroplast membrane maintains a constant environment in stroma by regulating the passage of substances. Stromules are the protrusions of the chloroplast membranes into the cytoplasm. Chloroplast stroma is the fluid surrounded by two membranes of the chloroplast.

Mitochondria and chloroplasts (article) | Khan Academy

Thylakoids, chloroplast DNA, ribosomes, starch granules and many proteins float around in the stroma. Ribosomes in the chloroplasts are 70S and responsible for the translation of proteins encoded by the chloroplast DNA. It is a single circular DNA located in the nucleoid in the chloroplast.

The size of the chloroplast DNA is around kb, containing genes and inverted repeats. Chloroplast DNA is replicated through the double displacement unit D-loop. Most of the chloroplast DNA transfers into the host genome by endosymbiotic gene transfer. A cleavable transit peptide is added to the N-terminus to the proteins translated in the cytoplasm as a targeting system for the chloroplast.

Thylakoids Thylakoid system is composed of thylakoids, which is a collection of highly dynamic, membranous sacks. Thylakoids consist of chlorophyll a, a blue-green pigment which is responsible for the light reaction in the photosynthesis.

structure function relationship of chloroplast and mitochondria

In addition to chlorophylls, two types of photosynthetic pigments can be present in plants: Grana are the stacks formed by the arrangement of thylakoids together. Different grana are interconnected by the stromal thylakoids. Chloroplasts of C4 plants and some algae consist of freely-floating chloroplasts.

Function Chloroplasts can be found in leaves, cacti and stems of plants. A plant cell consisting of chlorophyll is referred to as chlorenchyma. Chloroplasts can change their orientation depending on the availability of sunlight. Chloroplasts are capable of producing glucose, by using CO2 and H2O with the aid of light energy in a process called photosynthesis.

Difference Between Chloroplast and Mitochondria | Structure, Function, Comparison

Photosynthesis proceeds through two steps: Light Reaction The light reaction occurs in the thylakoid membrane. During the light reaction, oxygen is produced by splitting of water. A detailed diagram of the light reaction is shown in figure 2. Light reaction Dark Reaction The dark reaction is also called the Calvin cycle. It occurs in the stroma of chloroplast. Calvin cycle proceeds through three phases: The end product of the Calvin cycle is glyceraldehydephosphate, which can be doubled to form glucose or fructose.

Calvin Cycle Chloroplasts are also capable of producing all amino acids and nitrogenous bases of the cell by themselves. This eliminates the requirement of exporting them from the cytosol. What are Mitochondria A mitochondrion is a membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic cells. The chemical energy source of the cell, which is the ATP, is generated in the mitochondria. Mitochondria also contain their own DNA inside the organelle.

Difference Between Chloroplast and Mitochondria

Structure A mitochondrion is a bean-like structure with 0. The number of mitochondria present in a particular cell depends on the cell type, tissue and organism. Five distinct components can be identified in the mitochondrial structure.

structure function relationship of chloroplast and mitochondria

The structure of a mitochondrion is shown in figure 4. Mitochondrion A mitochondrion consists of two membranes — inner and the outer membrane. Outer Mitochondrial Membrane The outer mitochondrial membrane contains a large number of integral membrane proteins called porins.

Translocase is an outer membrane protein. Translocase-bound N-terminal signal sequence of large proteins allows the protein to enter into mitochondria. The association of mitochondrial outer membrane with endoplasmic reticulum forms a structure called MAM mitochondria-associated ER-membrane.

MAM allows the transport of lipids between mitochondria and the ER through calcium signalling. These are found in green plants and green algae. The chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis, having their genome. These are the complexed structure, having the size of around 10um and 0. The structure of the chloroplast has the rigid cell wall, most importantly it contains thylakoids, which is the flat disc shape structure.

Numerous thylakoids, which makes the bundle known as grana. These grana are present in the central area of the stroma. Another important part is chlorophyll, which is a green pigment and plays its role in capturing the sunlight, this is also present in thylakoid. The thylakoid membrane also contains enzymes and other light-absorbing pigments, that are used in producing energy in the form of ATP adenosine triphosphate.

Key Differences Between Mitochondria and Chloroplast Following are the key difference between the two most important organelles of the cell: Mitochondria are responsible for cellular respiration and energy metabolism. Conversely, Chloroplast is found only in green plants and in few algae, they are the sites of photosynthesis.

structure function relationship of chloroplast and mitochondria

This organelle of the cell is much more complex and larger than the mitochondria. Mitochondria are present in the cells of all types of aerobic organisms like plants and animals, whereas Chloroplast is present in green plants and some algae, protists like Euglena.

Mitochondria is the colourless, bean shape organelles. Chloroplasts are green colour and disc shape organelles. Mitochondria and Chloroplast have two chambers inside them which is the matrix and the cristae in mitochondria, stroma, and thylakoids in a chloroplast. The inner membrane of mitochondria is folded into cristae while that of a chloroplast, rises into flattened sacs called as thylakoids.

The thylakoid membrane in chloroplast contains carotenoids, chlorophyll, and photosynthetic pigments, but these are absent in mitochondria.

Mitochondria convert sugar glucose into chemical energy called as ATP adenosine triphosphateit uses oxygen and release energy by breaking the organic food and in turn produces carbon dioxide along with water. In chloroplast the solar energy is stored, this organelle helps in storing the energy, further it also uses carbon dioxide and water to make glucose. Chloroplast liberates or releases oxygen. Similarities Both are double membrane structure. They both provide energy to the cell.

structure function relationship of chloroplast and mitochondria

Both the organelles contain enzyme and coenzyme. There is the involvement of the oxygen and carbon dioxide. Another unique feature is that both the organelles can move from one place to another within the cell.

  • Mitochondria and chloroplasts
  • Mitochondria
  • Compare and Contrast: Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

Conclusion From the above article, we came to know that, being one of the most important parts of the eukaryotic cell, both the organelles are essential and contribute equally to the growth and function of the cell. It is also concluded that earlier mitochondria were the free-living aerobic bacteria, which became part of the eukaryotic cell due to some process.

Chloroplast, is not the part of all eukaryotic cell, as it is found in green plants and few algae. As these play the main role in process photosynthesis, through which plant prepare their food with the help of sunlight.