Marketing in Leisure and Tourism | Sagamore Venture Publishing
Customer Relationship Marketing in Hospitality: A Study of Star Hotels in . Tourism infrastructure facilitates recreation and leisure activity like transportation. 14 items Department of Tourism, Recreation and Sport Management University of Florida The leisure-tourism causal relationship was found to be statistically significant .. Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action, South Western College. the co-ordinators of Recreation and Leisure Services Programs for their .. environmental education areas, camps, parks and sports, as well as in tourism, including resorts healthy active living* by applying principles of marketing and current and groups, graduates apply relationship building skills to contribute to the.
The Business Consultancy Project Part I 10 Improvements to processes, services, products, people, and systems are core to the strategy of organisations. Improvements bridge the gap between current and required performance to add value and achieve and sustain a competitive advantage in the long-term. Effective consultation and project management using appropriate business improvement and research methodologies is key to the successful implementation of change.
In this module students will explore how to plan, organise, motivate, and control resources to achieve defined goals, on time and to agreed cost and quality criteria. They will liaise with employers, establish agreed objectives and present their findings in a clear, business focused report and presentation.
Global Business and Strategy 10 This module studies the global business using a combined strategic and economic approach. As part of this module, you will explore the recent major global economic shifts and analyse current international business events. You will study the key theoretical underpinnings, trends and challenges of international trade and foreign direct investment. This will allow you to consider the long-term sustainability of businesses in the ever-changing, and often hostile, global business environment and help you understand the critical role played by strategic management.
You will learn how to weigh up a range of complex issues like culture, leadership, corporate governance and others when developing a strategy for an international business. Throughout this module, you will develop critical practical skills valued by employers and professional accreditation bodies.
These include selecting and interpreting data, problem-solving and decision-making, positioning analysis, and developing and evaluating strategic options. Such skills are vital for successful careers in a variety of international and domestic organisations Marketing Across Cultures 10 Organisations in all sectors and industries face increasing international competition. This can be from multi-nationals, from competitors establishing themselves in their domestic environment, the need for foreign suppliers or indeed when they seek to establish operations abroad.
As a student of Marketing and future Marketing professional, you must therefore have a thorough understanding of the added complexities involved and how this impacts on the formulation of marketing plans and strategies. This module seeks to build on the knowledge and concepts you will have encountered at earlier stages of the course.
Three hundred years ago, wealthy young Englishmen began taking a post- Oxbridge trek through France and Italy in search of art, culture and the roots of Western civilization. With nearly unlimited funds, aristocratic connections and months or years to roam, they commissioned paintingsperfected their language skills and mingled with the upper crust of the Continent.
The primary value of the Grand Tour, it was believed, laid in the exposure both to the cultural legacy of classical antiquity and the Renaissanceand to the aristocratic and fashionably polite society of the European continent.
Emergence of leisure travel[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Englishman in the Campagna by Carl Spitzweg c.
These comprised the new middle class. Panels from the Thomas Cook Building in Leicester, displaying excursions offered by Thomas Cook Leicester railway station — built in to replace, largely on the same site, Campbell Street stationthe origin for many of Cook's early tours.
All these concepts are characterized by very complex relationships in the creation and delivery of their services to tourists. In the marketing literature, goods and services are both described as products Cowell, In simple terms, tangible products are often referred to as goods, while intangible products are often referred to as services. Services are a different type of product than goods Foxall, Some products are a mixture of a tangible good and intangible service. For example, restaurants offer a tangible product in the form of food and an intangible product in the form of atmosphere, advice on food and beverage selection, and speed of meal preparation.
Kotler lists four distinct categories of products: However, Levitt argued that there is no pure service industry because there are no pure intangible services, only indus- tries with greater or smaller service components.
It is very difficult to define a pure service and a pure good.
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A pure good implies that no element of intangible service is offered with the good the customer receives. A pure service implies that there is no element of physical goods in the service offered.
However, Shostack went further in the analysis of the categories of products and described a product continuum, known as a tangibility spectrum, which ranges from tangible dominant goods to intan- gible dominant services. According to Shostacka key determinant of whether an offering is a service is the degree of intangibility. Services tend to be more intangible than manufactured products; manufactured products tend to be more tangible than services.
On the other hand, education and consulting can be classified as very intangi- ble products. However, tangible products such as cars also require many intangible service elements such as the transportation process itself.
An intangible service such as education includes many tangible elements such as books. Consequently, all marketing products are mixtures of tangible goods and intangible services.
Services are provided in every sector of the economy: For example, renting a hotel room, depositing money in a bank, visiting a doctor, getting a haircut, or traveling on an airplane—all involve buying a service. However, the theoretical concept of service is very complex and diffi- cult to define.
It consists of a set of different elements. Thus, it can be explained in several different ways. It has been agreed that service repre- sents one of the main aspects of product delivery.
The Park and Recreation Professional’s Handbook: Definitions of Leisure, Play, and Recreation
Service has been defined Concepts of Tourism, Hospitality, and Leisure Services 7 as "any activity or benefit one party can offer to another that is essentially intangible and does not result in the ownership of anything. Production may or may not be tied to a physical product" Kotler et al. The literature also refers to services as deeds, processes, and performances Zeithaml and Bitner, and interactions or social events Normann, The focus is on the service process or service encounter, which has been defined as the interaction between the customer and the firm or the dyadic interaction between customer and service provider Czepiel, Solo- mon, and Surprenant, ; Shostack, ; Solomon et al.
Shostack defined this encounter as a period of time during which a provider and a customer confront each other, or a moment of truth. What happens between a customer and a provider during this encounter determines the quality of the services and a customer's satisfaction with service. The extent of personal interaction between a provider and a customer and the length of this interaction vary among services. Mills divid- ed services into three primary categories: The first type is of a simple nature and is characterized by little uncertainty in transactions e.
The second type is characterized by greater risk in transactions and depends upon the service providers for information and expertise e.
Recreation, Sport, and Tourism (RST)
The third type is the most complex. It depends upon a very intense interaction between the provider and the customer, the performance of the service providers, and their competence and personality. This type of service is very labor intensive and is characterized by the greatest risk in transactions e. The performances and activities of the providers during the service encounter create customers' experiences with service.
When a customer "buys" a hotel room tangible and visible goods such as bed or furniture he or she also purchases a hotel experience the hotel atmosphere, the way the customer is treated at the front desk, by a concierge or a waiter.
The experiences purchased create certain real benefits for customers. Some of the benefits are physical, such as the comfort of a hotel bed, and others are psychological or emotional benefits such as enjoyment and happiness. Usually customers purchase a bundle of benefits that is a combination of physical and psychological benefits.
During the interaction with a provider the customer evaluates whether the provider is able to fulfill the custom- er's expectations and deliver benefits that generate satisfaction.
The pro- vider's skills, motivations, and attitudes toward a customer greatly influ- 8 Service Quality Management in Hospitality, Tourism, and Leisure ence this evaluation. Bateson argued that services should be defined in terms of the extent to which the customer receives the intangi- ble benefits of service during the service encounter.
The general consensus is that services could also be defined as satisfac- tion with interaction experiences. However, the services marketing literature indicates that there is a difference between these two concepts. Satisfaction is a psychological outcome deriving from an experience. Westbrook described it as an emotional state that occurs in response to an evaluation of the interactional experiences.
- Definitions of leisure, play, and recreation
Service and, in particular, service quality is concerned with the attributes of the service itself Crompton and MacKay, and how to satisfy customers so that they develop positive percep- tions of the service Ostrowski, O'Brien, and Gordon, Satisfaction depends on the quality of service attributes Crompton and MacKay, Usually a high quality of service attributes results in high satisfaction.
All services are characterized by intangibility, perishability, inseparabili- ty of production and consumption, and heterogeneity. These unique charac- teristics of services which will be discussed later are constantly acknowl- edged in the services marketing literature e.
These characteristics make it difficult to evaluate services Zeithaml, The criteria of service quality are still not adequately determined. Defining quality service and providing tech- niques for its measurement represent a major concern of service providers and researchers. The difficulty of defining a service and its quality is also increased by its subjective nature. The perception of a service level varies according to an individual's sociodemographic and cultural grouping, needs and require- ments, and previous service experiences.
Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry reported that service quality is determined by a subjective customer perception of service. Lewis and Booms highlighted the subjective nature of service quality by noting that there is an element of "appropriate- ness" about service quality.
They noted that evaluation of service quality depends upon "what is acceptable and what is not" p. In summary, the concept of service is multidimensional and difficult to define and evaluate. It becomes a particularly complex issue in high-con- tact service industries such as tourism, hospitality, or leisure, which by themselves are extremely difficult to define and explain. A tourism product is an amalgam of all goods, activities, and services offered to tourists by different sectors of the tourism industry in order to Concepts of Tourism, Hospitality, and Leisure Services 9 satisfy tourist needs while they are away from home.
It includes the jour- ney to and from a destination, transfer from and to an airport, accommoda- tion, transportation while at the destination, and everything that a tourist does, sees, and uses on the way to and from the destination, including purchases of food and drinks, souvenirs, entertainment, amusement French, Craig-Smith, and Collier,and a very wide range of other services such as financial, medical, insurance, etc.
A tourism product is often referred to as a tourism destination. How- ever, a tourism destination is a geographical area or, as Burkart and Medlik noted, a geographical unit visited by a tourist, which may be a village, town, or city, a district or a region, an island, a country, or a continent.
This geographical unit offers a number of different tourism products for pur- chase and consumption. The major components of the tourism destination are: Tourist activities create demand for an extremely wide range of services in the course of the journey and stay at destination, classified as direct and indirect services.
The direct services include transportation to and from the chosen destination air, sea, land ; transportation within a destination and between destinations; accommodation at the destination hotels, motels, re- sorts, home and farm stays, RV parks, campgrounds, etc. These services cater directly to tourist needs. The indirect services are financial, medical, insurance, retailing, wholesaling travel agent, tour operatorcleaning, printing, telecommunication, good water, sewerage, or electricity.
These services support the provision of direct services. Without indirect services the provision of direct services would be impossible. As a result, a tourism product is a service rather than a tangible product. The tourism product is not only a collection of tangible products hotel buildings and intangible services accommodation services but also psy- 10 Service Quality Management in Hospitality, Tourism, and Leisure chological experiences.
It includes everything that tourists feel from the time they leave home until their return. Therefore, tourist perceptions form part of the tourism product and represent its psychological component. These perceptions are, however, very subjective.
Different individuals seek different experiences from the same set of services and products. Consequently, they experience and perceive the same product differently. Also, since individuals have diverse needs and try to obtain different benefits from the same product, the level of tourist satisfaction with the same product also differs.
Moreover, the tourism product also has a human component. The per- ceptions of this human component are particularly important. During their trips tourists come into direct and indirect contact with many people, such as motel staff, flight attendants, cashiers in shops, waitstaff, tour guides, and local residents.
The tourist's perceptions of this contact and the ser- vices provided by industry personnel and the members of the host popula- tion determine the overall perceptions of tourism product quality and tourist satisfaction. The best quality of attractions, accommodation, trans- portation, amenities, and activities will not attract tourists if tourists feel unwelcomed by the host population, or if the service quality is poor.
Consequently, in addition to the five major components of the tourism product, which are access, amenities, accommodation, attractions, and activities, a sixth component must be added—people. Research shows that the tourism and hospitality industry relies very heavily on the development of positive perceptions of people providing services to tourists.
For example, Pearce illustrated the role of many people associated with the travel and hospitality industry such as restaura- teurs, salespeople, hoteliers, and others in contributing to tourists' overall perceptions of service.
Sutton reported that competency in providing services is an important element influencing positive tourist perceptions of service. Pearce indicated variables that create tourists' negative per- ceptions of service such as the service providers' impoliteness or profes- sional incompetence. Negative perceptions deter visitation and discourage repeat purchasing. Therefore, the way tourists perceive the service providers influences the success of a particular tourism product destination.
In light of these perceptions, the tourism product is a combination of both tangible and intangible items that provide the tourist with total psy- chological experiences.
The tangible items may be furniture in a hotel room or the food served in a restaurant. The intangible items include Concepts of Tourism, Hospitality, and Leisure Services 11 people and the services they provide, e. The tangible and intangible items are offered by distinct sectors of the tourism industry as individual subproducts, which create the total tourism product.
The individual subproducts may represent individual tourism products or one product. Individual subproducts are supplied by individual suppliers. They may be purchased separately or together with other sub-products as a package.
Consequently, a tourism product is a combination of different subproducts and the total tourist experience and satisfaction with these subproducts see Figure 1. A tourism product may be developed with conscious effort to appeal to a specific market, e. The emphasis in the latter is on the psychological and experiential component of the tourism product rather than the tangible component.
The concept of the tourism product as a composite of various subpro- ducts signifies the importance of the linkages and mutual dependence of all sectors. Unsatisfactory performance of one subproduct sector can reflect badly on the performance of the total product, and on overall tourist experience and satisfaction with the total product.
The nature of the tour- ism product highlights the complexity and diversity of the tourism indus- try, which depends on the interrelationships among all the sectors deliver- ing tourism products and services.
The nature of the tourism product implies the importance of cooperation between all the sectors in order to achieve an integrated tourism product and accomplish a major goal, which is tourist satisfaction.
Recreation, Sport, and Tourism (RST) < University of Illinois
The concept of service has received substantial attention in the field of tourism Fick and Ritchie, ; Ostrowski, O'Brien, and Gordon,hospitality Lewis and Chambers, ; Saleh and Ryan, and recre- ation MacKay and Crompton, Text and Readings, Third Edition. The Dry den Press. Services Marketing Is Different. Past, Present and Future, Second Edition. Heinemann Professional Publishing Ltd.
Leisure Sciences, 11 4: Une Approache Nouvelle pour le Marketing de Services. Revue Francaise de Gestion, 2 Spring: Journal of Travel Research, 30 2: Marketing in the Service Industries. Marketing in Australia, Fourth Edition. Production-Line Approach to Service. Harvard Business Re- view, Sept.