PARC (company) - Wikipedia
Xerox PARC was the innovation arm of the Xerox Corporation. . But if the friction created by those connections was greater than the friction. Xerox PARC, in full Xerox Corporation Palo Alto Research Center, division Xerox had invented and dominated the paper copier market since , but with . One thing the Alto incident appears to have embedded in Xerox's corporate culture . which uses the capitalized X to call attention to the connection with Xerox.
Despite its vast industry contributions, the group has been criticized for failing to capitalize on its many innovations. While some of our older readers might be familiar with the prolific Palo Alto Research Center, we think its accomplishments have largely escaped the younger tech crowd.
We'd like to take a few and give credit where credit's due. We have revised it and bumped it as part of our ThrowbackThursday initiative. Ethernet and Internetworking The networking platform that ships with virtually every modern computer was born at PARC around with Robert Metcalfe and three of his colleagues credited as inventors. An early experimental version of Ethernet ran at 2.
Xerox PARC: A Nod to the Minds Behind the GUI, Ethernet, Laser Printing, and More - TechSpot
Early Ethernet used coaxial cables, but they were eventually ditched in favor of twisted pair and fiber optic cables. Yeah, yeah that's supposed to be the theme of this article, but read on. A mouse-like bowling ball contraption was created as a secret military project inwhile Stanford's Douglas Engelbart independently produced a wheel mouse in the early 60s. Only weeks before Engelbart planned to demonstrate his device inthe German company Telefunken revealed a ball mouse -- though it barely resembles modern designs.
Did Steve Jobs steal everything from Xerox PARC? › Mac History
Bill English, who assisted Engelbart with his original concept, later built the "Alto" ball mouse we're more familiar with while working for Xerox PARC in Its rectangular shape, button placement and top-protruding wire set the standard we still follow today.
The device was created for PARC's early "Alto" machine, which was arguably the first modern personal computer with a mouse-driven GUI, but it never hit the retail market.
PARC had to pioneer much of the graphical environment we take for granted, all the way down to coining the "desktop" metaphor conceptually speaking, Engelbart beat PARC here too. The group's early GUI featured icons, pop-up menus, check boxes, and overlapping windows controlled with a mouse. That opened the door for some innovative software, including many of the first WYSIWYG applications -- a luxury in those days, to say the least.
By the late 70s, PARC invented linguistic technologies for spell-checking and created one of the first networked multiplayer games, Alto Trek.
First Laser Printer Invented by Gary Starkweather at Xerox's Webster research center inthe first laser printer prototype was fabricated by modifying a xerographic copier.
Although it was technically birthed just ahead of PARC's founding, Starkweather collaborated with the Palo Alto team over the following couple years to refine his original design. It was quickly followed by competing devices from Brother, IBM, Apple and others, but even the early "consumer" implementations were incredibly expensive by modern standards. Laser printing grew into a multibillion-dollar business for Xerox, easily funding all of its other projects.
The Personal Computer Many of the above technologies were present in PARC's experimental Alto computer, but that system wasn't meant for prime time and was used mostly internally through the 70s.
The Alto was greatly refined and commercialized in when Xerox shipped its first office workstation, known as the Xerox Star or the Xerox Information System. As events transpired, the s were a decade of fundamental innovation at PARC, but its parent company failed to transform these ideas into dollars.
Early PARC innovations Among the many inventions of the s, few are as important as the personal computerand, because the Xerox Alto was developed inPARC can claim credit for having made the first one.
However, the mindset at Xerox, like that of all computer manufacturers of that time, was that a market did not exist for such machines. Corporate analysts asserted that the computer would be too expensive to market to the private and small-business users it was designed to serve, and so the machine was never released. Not only had new computer companies—such as Apple Computer, Inc.
The Star, however, with its mouse-driven graphical user interface GUIbuilt-in Ethernet networking protocoland optional laser printer, was far ahead of its time.
Discouraged by poor sales fewer than 2, units were soldXerox backed out of the personal computer market. Part of the problem for PARC was distance. Located far from the corporate seat of power in Stamford, the researchers at PARC were not part of everyday Xerox life. More important, a laser-driven copier could also serve as a printer, taking an image from a computer screen and capturing it on paper.
Xerox PARC: A Nod to the Minds Behind the GUI, Ethernet, Laser Printing, and More
No longer would computer printers be restricted to producing text and approximating images with standard typographic characters. Instead, anything displayable on a computer monitor could be printed. Unfortunately, at that time Xerox saw no point in innovating when their current technology worked so well.
By early a working prototype existed—but Xerox did not bring it to market until The laser printer soon became a best-selling product. Proposed by Robert Metcalfe and jointly developed with Intel Corporation and Digital Equipment Corporation in the mids, this networking standard increased the speed and reliability of data exchanges over local area networks LANs.