Gowrie () in his study about the relationship between principal-teacher need for more effective communication and good interpersonal relations within the. change relationship between principals and teachers has a significant influence on .. workplace relationships or interpersonal relationships. Findings indicate that a positive relationship existed between the principal's leadership behavior and the teachers' perceptions of the school as being innovative.
These teachers are required to bring these students to a level of achievement that far exceeds anything ever done in our education system.
The extent to which a teacher is able to accomplish this lies in her perceived self-efficacy. All in all, these teachers are more supportive to students than teachers with a low sense of efficacy.
With the understanding that teachers efficacy affects a number of areas in the teaching and learning environment, it is imperative that the impact that leadership has on teachers self- efficacy be examined. The study was conducted with teachers from elementary, middle and high schools across the United States. In addition to enhanced teacher reflection and professional growth, principals also provide literary resources, promote increased professional development opportunities and encourage reflection and organizational collaboration.
The increasing value placed on trust arises from the fact that it is beneficial to both the individual and the team in the organization. A number of studies support the view that positive trust manifests directly or indirectly in constructive behaviour and attitudes, greater cooperation, increased exchange of knowledge and information, successful change management and superior levels of performance Dirks and Ferrin, ; Morgan and Hunt ; Collins and Smith, ; Dirks cited in Walker, Kutsyuruba and Noonan Improperly used, it can plant the seeds of collapse Curall and Epstein p.
Ryan and Deci and Walumbwa et al. Teachers are perceived as being just as influential as principals; but cannot achieve the goals of student achievement on their own, as such; professional commitment to working collegially must be deeply rooted in them.
Hierarchy becomes less respected and compliance more difficult to enforce p. At present increased attention has been placed on team management as a form of administration in the education system. They argue that through team management the individual can receive collective support and the organisation can use the collective effort to arrive at better decisions. Stott and Walker go on to argue that member diversity increases the capacity of the organization to process complex information; a task which is usually challenging for one individual.
The collaborative effort of teams allows all stakeholders to participate in solving complex educational issues that the institution may be faced with Ijaiya et al. By using appropriate and relevant training methods principals can be trained to be more open and as such be viewed as trustworthy and approachable. It is only through careful selection and training that the right individuals with the appropriate competencies will be placed in these positions.
There are also implications for the principals themselves, who must be mindful that they strike a good balance between being task oriented and people oriented approaches in order to create a school climate that will promote trust, collaboration, high morale and self-efficacy. The principal should be flexible and willing to restructure his organization as the school culture and climate allows making autocracy a way of the past and promoting empowerment of his staff.
As a result of this, in many schools, teachers are demotivated, have low self- efficacy and morale and are not a part of the decision-making process. The schools climate, teacher empowerment, morale and self-efficacy in addition to trust in principal and organizational structure are all interrelated and contribute to creating the desired outcomes in teaching and learning.Top 5 WORST TEACHERS Caught On Camera! (School Cheerleader, Principal Graduation, Students)
Without a good balance of each element, a principal may find himself with teachers who give minimal support to school activities beyond their classroom obligations. A number of studies have indicated that principals who exercise concern for task accomplishment as well as the personal well-being of staff have teachers who perform at a higher level than those who 15 Teacher-Principal Relationship focus on only one category of behaviour.
One way of enhancing the school climate is to empower teachers by allowing them to be an integral part of the decision making process and to act upon their own ideas. The act of empowering teachers increases teacher morale and self- efficacy. Considering the calls for principals to communicate more with staff and to include staff in the decision-making process, the concept of team management has become more attractive than the autocratic leadership generally associated with the hierarchical structure of the school system.
In essence, the principal, in order to increase effectiveness should analyse the climate and culture of the school in order to determine the degree of team management that will promote the overall success of the organization. Iowa State University Chughtai, A. Empowering teachers its impact on students learning outcomes education essay.
The Relationship between principal teacher interaction and primary school climate in st. Trinidad and 17 Teacher-Principal Relationship Tobago: An effective technique for the administration of nigerian educational institutions.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. The effective elementary school principal. McGraw Hill Simmonds, A. Salleh and Adulpakdee [ 12 ] stated that the term conflicts originated from the word configure which means to strike together. For Barki and Hartwick [ 5 ] conflicts may be dyadic, or involve various parties. Ghaffar [ 3 ] sees conflict as an important and evitable human phenomenon emanating wherever diverse interests exist.
Chung and Meggingson [ 13 ] assert that we now live in an age of conflicts, which is fuelled by an increase in worker assertiveness in demanding their rights in the form of organizational perks, privileges, status, recognition, salary, benefits, autonomy, and decision-making opportunities.
De Janasz, Dowd, and Schneider [ 14 ] opined that conflict is a fact of life in an organization. Factors and Causes of Interpersonal Conflicts between Principals and Teachers in Secondary Schools Many conflicts are created by factors, which include gender, socio-economic status, ethnocultural, and racial tensions. Certain environments serve as sources of conflict.
Poor communication, competition, opposing ideas, and perceptions about personal success and failures and incompatible goals breed conflict. Conflicts can originate from discrepancies and politics in different aspects of the workplace, and are sustained by informal groups through gossip and rumours. Blaine [ 15 ] stated that teachers often bring their stresses into the school, leading to further conflicts.
The strong drive for work-related achievement in some teachers can breed conflicts with principals who do not emphasize work-related success in their lives. Barki and Hartwick [ 16 ] cited Fisher as stating that individuals and groups possess insuppressible needs for identity, dignity, equity, participation in decisions that affect them.
Lack of such fundamental needs in the organization can give rise to interpersonal conflicts in schools. Hartwick and Barki [ 5 ] cited Gray and Stark who suggested several sources of interpersonal conflicts. They suggest that individual differences, unclear authority, difference in attitude, task symmetries, and differences in time horizons are contributing factors to interpersonal conflicts.
Deutsch and Coleman [ 5 ], identified control over resources, preferences and nuisances, values, beliefs, and the nature of relationships between parties as sources of interpersonal conflicts. Ramini and Zhimin [ 17 ] provided an exhaustive list of causes of conflicts between teachers and principals. Ramini and Zhimin such causes such as imposition of strict deadlines for various activities, differences in perceptions on management of certain issues in the school, dictatorial tendencies on the part of school administrators, poor physical working conditions, lack of administrative support in provision of learning aids as well as psychosocial support and lack of communication to teachers when they are in need, administrators using school resources for personal selfish gains, inability to perform tasks assigned on time, unauthorized absenteeism and tribalism.
In addition, the authors suggested that when principals set unrealistic targets for teachers, set goals that are not specific, engaging teachers in "crash programs" where they have to cover wide sections of syllabus in a short time, display laxity in implementation of school policies, display laxity among teachers, make unreasonable demands of teachers and favouritism, interpersonal conflicts develop.
Conflict Management Strategies Used to Address Interpersonal Conflicts in Secondary Schools The management and resolution of conflict in educational settings requires strategies that promote the amicable handling of disputes cooperatively, constructively and successfully in addition to traditional disciplinary procedures. Ghaffar [ 3 ] cited Johnson and Johnson, who stated that when conflicts are resolved constructively, certain characteristic features result in an outcome: According to Ghaffar, though there exists a plethora of conflict management styles, a collaborative approach gives a higher probability of protecting the relationship.
Tesfay [ 18 ] citing Rahim and Bonoma [ 19 ] described five styles for managing interpersonal conflicts. Avoiding, accommodating, competing, compromising, and collaborating.
Tesfay also cited Archer [ 20 ] who suggested three possible strategies that are used to manage interpersonal conflicts in secondary schools. Win-lose strategy It involves a situation in which one person wins while the other suffers from the humiliation of losing. This strategy gives very little credence to compromise but situations where bosses may take advantage of personal dominance, rule by majority and even extreme cases of rule by powerful minority may be used as a strategy for managing interpersonal conflicts.
Lose-lose strategy It is a conflict management style in which a "compromising" technique is used where everyone gains minimally, but loses largely by compromising standards, qualities, and other important values.
The Win-win strategy Supporters of this strategy believe that everybody can win and nobody has to lose. Components of this strategy include realistic goal-oriented, problem-solving activities which result in decisions by consensus. Tesfay [ 18 ] suggests that when people utilize this strategy, they tend to be problem-centred rather than ego-centred and "carry out transparent and honest transactions with each other while focusing on goals and using an integrative strategy so that both parties stand to gain".
Based on the information given on this strategy, the win-win strategy appears to be the most effective strategy in addressing conflicts since it mediate for both parties. Similarly, Rahim [ 21 ] proposed five styles of managing conflicts. Integrating This according to Rahim and Bonoma [ 18 ] involves openness, exchange of information, and examination of differences to reach a solution acceptable to both parties. This strategy involves problem-solving which has the potential to lead to constructive resolution.
Obliging or smoothing Highlights common interests while bringing to the fore open recognition of actual or perceived conflicts to their lowest points.
Dominating The results of this strategy benefit one party, because Behavior to get one's position is forced [ 21 ]. Hellriegel and Slocum [ 22 ] pointed out that this style is used in cases of high emergency where quick action is needed to make uncommon decisions, where action must be taken in the interest of institutional survival or effectiveness; or in cases where one person seeks to suppress others and quick actions need to be taken for protection of the interest of the institution.
Avoiding This involves remaining neutral and impartial in a conflict situation. However, this strategy may appear unappealing to teachers who may believe that the administrator is insensitive. Compromising This occurs where each party sacrifices something to reach an amicable solution. Krietner and Kinicki [ 18 ] consider this style as the give-and-take approach involving moderate concern for each party. Tesfay [ 18 ] considers problem solving as a scientific approach which establishes the realization that a problem exists; then collects facts pertaining to it, and classifies the information; establishes one or more hypothetic solutions then selects each solution and assesses its feasibility.
The final stage is selection of the optimal solution and trying, checking, and making adjustments if necessary. Kilmann and Thomas[ 2324 ] developed a model of confronting conflict called the Thomas-Kilmann Model, which was based on work done by Blake and Mouton [ 25 ]. It included the five conflict management styles of avoidance, competition, accommodation, compromise and collaboration. Okotoni and Okotoni [ 26 ] suggested that for conflict management and resolution administration should: Bodin and Crawford [ 27 ] asserted that negotiation and mediation are the best strategies for eliminating conflicts; especially in an open social system such as a school that is permeated with the diversity of people from different cultural backgrounds and generational eras.
It must be noted that during the negotiation process, negotiators must implement strategies to deal with the types of situations that arise. The mediator must possess certain skills to handle interpersonal conflicts competently. Ghaffar [ 3 ] outlined these skills as a Ability to stimulate a smooth working relation with the conflicting parties; b Fostering an inclusive problem-solving attitude among parties; c Constructing an effective group process and group decision making framework, and d Ascertaining enormous substantive knowledge pertaining to the problems which the conflicts surround.
A successful conflict management program which achieves its objective, if it reaches win-win or consensus in an agreement; satisfies both parties and removes all elements of the conflict. All conflict management programs should strive to achieve win-win. Implications of Perceived or Actual Interpersonal Conflicts between Principals and Teachers for Students' Achievement and School Success Interpersonal conflict is assumed to be a natural part of organizational life, and the school as an open, social, and complex system is the ideal breeding ground for this phenomenon.
Interpersonal conflicts can have serious consequences on school climate and student success. The literature shows that interpersonal conflict between principals and teachers has a direct effect on teachers' and students' attitudes towards their work, and ultimately on students' achievement.
The literature shows that conflicts generated from accomplishing common tasks reap positive rewards while relationship conflicts are shown to produce negative rewards [ 16 ]. It is suggested that win-win conflicts be cultivated and relationship conflict be discouraged in an educational setting.
Methodology and Research Design This was a descriptive study designed as a survey, which utilized elements of quantitative research. This quota sample, four principals and teachers, was selected from eight secondary schools in Bermuda, which were randomly selected.
Only participants from the eight schools mentioned above completed and returned the item questionnaire, which was constructed by the researcher and achieved a reliability statistic of 0. The response categories were HighModerateand Low The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, which was calculated using the SPSS software. The methodology and instrumentation suit this research, for they can be adapted for various types of contexts, and conflict is a complex and inevitable behavioural phenomenon.
Data Analysis, Presentation, Results and Discussion This section presents the analysed data, the results in relation to each research question and a discussion of the findings, using the literature reviewed. This results in synthesis of findings with existing research and the experience of the researcher. Data analysis The data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The demographic and specific data are presented below starting with the demographic data.
Demographic data Descriptive statistics were calculated for all demographic data that were gathered from the questionnaire. Of the questionnaires completed and returned by teacher participants, 62 All four principals had been in the teaching profession for over 21 years. All of the participants were over the age of 26 years.
The data reflected a highly educated teaching force with all of the teachers having at least a first degree and all the principals having graduate degrees see Table 1. Most of the teachers were class teachers, but there were significant numbers of senior teachers who were Heads of Department and Grade Supervisors see Table 1. The range of teaching experience in their current positions ranged from years.
Of the four principals, three had been appointed to their positions years and one, for over 21 years. Analysis of specific data from questionnaire Research question 1 asked "What factors contribute to interpersonal conflicts between principals and teachers in secondary schools in Bermuda?
Frequency distribution of responses to these questions were displayed in tables. The response categories with weightings were as follows: High ; Moderate ; Low The data shows the different perspectives of teachers and principals. In contrast one principal rated it 'High', one 'Moderate', and two 'Low' see Table 2.
Dictatorial tendencies of school administrators was given a 'High' rating by 90 of teacher respondents, while all four principals gave it a 'Low' rating. In response to lack of administrative support in provision of learning aids and psychosocial support when they are in need, In contrast, none of the principals gave this factor a 'High' rating-one rated it 'Moderate', and three rated it 'Low' see Table 2.
Participants' responded to the contribution of intergroup and interpersonal relations to interpersonal conflicts in schools. Racism was rated 'High' by Half the teachers rated favouritism while all four principals rated it Low.
Responses of teachers to the subcategory, laxity among teachers make interesting reading. The principal showed strong agreement with the teachers as two principals rated it 'High', one 'Moderate', and one 'Low' see Table 3.
In response to Personnel Practices, unauthorized absenteeism was rated 'High' by Two principals rated this it 'High, one rated it 'Moderate', and one rated it 'Low'.
In contrast three principals rated this factor 'Low' and one 'Moderate'. Unreasonable demands by school administration was rated 'High' by over two thirds of teacher respondents but none of the principal respondents gave it a 'High' rating. One rated it 'Moderate' and three rated it 'Low' see Table 4. The data shows that majority of the teacher participants responded to work structure as contributing factors of interpersonal conflicts in schools.
The majority of teachers rated this Moderate to High.
In contrast, three of the principals, rated it 'Low' and one 'Moderate'. In relation to setting goals that are not specific, one principal rated it 'High', two 'Moderate', and one 'Low'.
Of the four principals, two rated teachers' inability to perform tasks on time 'High', one rated it 'Moderate', and one 'Low'. Of the teachers, 30 rated it 'High', 52 'Moderate', and 36 'Low' see Table 5.
According to the data, the physical environments of the schools have low tendencies in causing conflicts. This factor was rated 'High' by 8. The principals' response endorsed the teachers'. One rated it 'Moderate' and three rated it 'Low'. The majority of the teacher respondents, 51 On this issue principals concurred as they all rated it 'Low'. Item 29 of the questionnaire sought responses on the influence of ethical factors in contributing to interpersonal conflicts in schools. The data shows that majority of the teacher participants On the other hand, two principals rated it 'Low', one rated it 'Moderate', and one rated it 'High'.
Item 30 of the questionnaire asked participants to state the factors that contribute to interpersonal conflict between principal and teachers in their schools. The responses were converted into 7 categories consistent with the predetermined categories formulated in this research. The number of occasions that each factor was indicated. For intergroup and interpersonal relations, the teachers prioritized cultural differences 63personality differences 49language and persona 43lack of professional commitment 62power struggles 27poor interpersonal skills 58and vindictiveness 59 as factors contributing to conflicts.
The four principals indicated only three instances of language and persona, two cases of lack of professional commitment, one indication of power struggles, three concerns of personality differences, and two concerns of vindictiveness as factors contributing to interpersonal conflicts.
None of the other factors mentioned by the teachers were indicated by the principals. Regarding the issue of the physical environment of the schools, the teachers identified only 20 instances. None of the principals indicated that this factor contributes to conflict in schools. Only 15 cases of competition for limited resources were recorded by teachers while none of the principal participants view this factor as a cause of conflict.
The data shows that majority of teachers responded that personnel practices were major factors contributing to interpersonal conflict. Thus, they indicated 74 cases of layoffs perceived, 76 instances of unreasonable demands by administration, 65 cases of unauthorized absenteeism, and 46 reports of laxity in implementation of school policies.
The principals reported only 3 instances of unauthorized absenteeism. Teacher participants identified work structure as a cause of interpersonal conflicts. Setting unrealistic targets for teachers 63setting goals that are not specific 31inability to perform tasks on time 27subjecting teachers to overwhelming workloads 57and failure to set high expectations for students and holding them responsible for their own actions However, only 2 instances of inability to perform tasks on time were identified by the principals.
This is not surprising as it was expected that teachers would be more concerned about these factors than principals. Ethical factors were indicated by teachers in a number of instances. They were as follows: Failure to support teachers when dealing with aggressive students and parents 53inappropriate involvement of parents in the teaching-learning process 50parents undermining teachers' professional autonomy 27inappropriate allocation of resources 21discussing students and teachers inappropriately 25and morale distress due to lack of empowerment to address diverse values Only two of all the aforementioned ethical factors were mentioned by principals, namely, discussing students and teachers inappropriately.
Though the physical environment of the schools appeared healthy and competition for limited resources was rare, intergroup and interpersonal relations, management issues, personnel practices, work structure, cultural differences, employee development, and ethical concerns were found to be major factors contributing to interpersonal conflict.
From the findings to Research Question 1, it can be concluded that the factors that contribute into interpersonal conflicts in secondary school between teachers and principals are management issues, intergroup and interpersonal relations, personnel practices, work structure, and ethical concerns of teachers.
It can also be concluded that principals and teachers do not perceive similar contributing factors to conflicts in schools see Table 6. The findings are consistent with previous research as they show that micromanagement, lack of autonomy, unfair performance appraisal, lack of purposeful employee development, and inappropriate implementation of rules and regulations contribute to interpersonal conflicts in schools. Gray and Stark [ 5 ] suggested the aforementioned factors along with communication problems as common sources of interpersonal conflicts.
Ramini and Zhimin [ 17 ] commented on similar management and personnel issues that cause conflicts between teachers and principals. Imposition of strict deadlines for various activities, differences in perceptions on management of certain issues in the school, dictatorial tendencies on the part of some school administrators, and lack of administrative support in provision of learning aids as well as psychosocial support. Hartwick and Barki [ 16 ] cite Fisher as stating that, many conflicts are created by ethnocultural and racial tensions.
Also, Deutsch and Coleman as cited in Hartwick and Barkiidentified personnel preferences as source of interpersonal conflicts. According to Blaine [ 15 ] these factors can originate from discrepancies and politics in the different aspects of the workplace, and are sustained by informal groups through gossip and rumours. Blaine believes that the strong drive for work-related achievement in some teachers can breed conflicts with principals who do not emphasize work-related success in their lives.
Research question 2 asked "What effects do interpersonal conflicts between principals and teachers in secondary schools in Bermuda have on student achievement and school success? The ratings to the response categories were as follows: HighModerateand Low According to the data, the majority of teacher respondents 94 or Just one principal rated it 'High'.
Teachers generally felt that interpersonal conflict decreases job effectiveness with Two principals rated it 'High', one rated it 'Moderate', and one rated it 'Low' see Table 7.