HIV/AIDS is affecting the global human development of African countries . levels and that the principles of sustainable development be a major focus . to explore the relationship between health and economic development. In addition, the disease strikes the poor hardest: more than 95% of people living with HIV/AIDS are in low-income countries. In high-income. sustainable development, HIV/AIDS is destroying the social and economic als (including managers and support workers) in relation to the population, at .
These indigenous technologies are confined to the places of origin and there is no documentation of these technologies. It is reported that HIV is spreading from urban areas to rural areas and also within the specified location because of its nature of transmission. In such conditions, they would not be able to work properly and take the burden of the work.
Small ailments will become the regular visitors of their body. In the case of prevalence of infection in the labor force, the production is again at risk since the replacement of the labor would not be the solution.
The situation is going to be worse in developing countries where mechanization is still has a long way to go. The labor-intensive technologies are prevalent in most of the developing and underdeveloped countries of South East Asia. In these countries the production system would be worse affected.
Countries like China and India, where rice is the staple food crop and grown in the major portion of the cultivated agricultural land, may face an acute shortage of labor since rice is a transplanted crop and requires hand roping. The transplanting is done by a migrant labor force who remain outside their home place. Studies reveal that such labor forces are sexually active outside their homes and have multiple sexual partners.
Increase in the reactive population would adversely affect rice production system in these countries. The population dynamics and the role-play in these societies would also change as widows, grandparents, and children suddenly take on roles they are unprepared for. By its nature, AIDS could kill more than one member of the family, as spouses or partners and children may also be infected, increasing the financial and psychological strain on households.
The general well being of surviving members of the households declines due to economic hardships, illness and grief from losing a relative. In some instances, the family unit disintegrates.
Surviving members of such households, including children, may be forced into very low paid work, crime or sex work, which would in turn perpetuate the epidemic. In the public health sector, for instance, the increasing need for medicine and care for people with HIV related illness puts significant strain on resources and structures.
In most African countries these facilities are already inadequate due to financial constraints. Increased demand for the facilities drains the meager public resources. The problem of health care facilities is compounded by reduced human capacities as health personnel succumb to AIDS. Orphans without parental support drop out of school, as they look for means of sustaining themselves or as they become caregivers. Teachers succumb to AIDS, depriving children of education.
The pandemic has had a severe impact on education in Sub-Saharan Africa, destroying the already struggling sector.
HIV/AIDS: A Threat to Sustainable Development in Developing Countries - Panorama - TakingITGlobal
In addition, institutional memory and skills are also lost with the deaths. Agriculture, which is the mainstay of most African economies, is severely affected, threatening food security on the continent. These costs arise from absenteeism due to illness and funeral attendance, lost skills, reduced work performance and lower productivity, particularly in labour-intensive businesses. A World Bank study suggests that even an adult prevalence rate of 10 per cent may reduce the growth of national income by up to a third and infection levels above 20 per cent can reduce a country's GDP by 1 per cent per year As HIV infection is largely concentrated in the working age population of 15 to 49 years, the composition of labour force is upset.
HIV/AIDS, Population and Sustainable Development
This mobility has in part determined HIV transmission, particularly in Southern Africa where mobility is relatively high. The economies are also strained by the increasing demand for resources for care, prevention and treatment placed on health and other social services. Demands for training and skills to replenish those lost to AIDS deaths also strain the economy. The failure of the economies to grow increases poverty among the populations of these countries.
Consequently, the poor people feel the burden of the epidemic since they cannot afford the treatment and care, and they have to engage in behaviours that increase the risk levels.
Women, due to biological, social, economic and cultural factors, are more vulnerable to HIV infection than men. Young women are even more vulnerable to infection as they have their sexual experiences earlier than young men and in most cases with older men, who are already infected.
Women, particularly young ones and the elderly, are also more affected by the epidemic as they assume the largest burden of caring for those dying of AIDS and the orphans left behind. Young girls drop out of school to take care of sick relatives and orphaned siblings. They are not empowered to negotiate safe sex or to refrain from engaging in risky sexual behaviours to sustain themselves.
These continuing inequalities play a significant role in the processes of HIV transmission to women. The first level relates to the growing number of child sexual abuses, a disturbing factor fueling the spread of the virus among young children, both females and males. The most worrying dimension to the increase in child sexual abuses is that some of the perpetrators are infected by the HIV virus and thus believe that sex with a virgin would cure them.
Media reports indicate that this tendency is not confined to South Africa, but also to some of the countries in the region. In some instances, these cases go unreported because the perpetrators are family members or individuals known to the families. Information on such abuses against children in the various African countries is not easily available to make an analysis of the extent of the problem.
However, the foregoing report highlights the serious implications on child mortality rates.
Furthermore, the general economic decline in most African countries has changed societies such that the traditional safety nets of extended families and communities that used to exist for orphans decades ago are almost non-existent at present.
The death of a parent or both parents at times mean the disintegration of the family unit, forcing young children to fend for themselves. Many of these orphans drop out of school to form child headed households to look after their siblings or live on the streets until they reach adulthood.
The impact of HIV/AIDS on human development in African countries
In cases where orphans are taken into the care of grandparents or relatives, their lives are never the same as these guardians may lack parenting capacities due to old age, lack of resources or lack of care. The trauma of losing parents as well as the lack of economic and educational opportunities and poor socialization could lead to anti-social behaviour such as crime, rebellion and prostitution.
These affected children grow up with less economic opportunities and become less productive in society as adults. The understanding of the impact of the epidemic on security has generally been confined to studies on the prevalence of the disease on military and police forces in relation to peacekeeping missions as well as on the spread of the epidemic among communities in conflict areas.
Considering the huge threat presented by the increasing number of people made vulnerable by AIDS, particularly orphans, it is essential to broaden the understanding. The Report provides a comprehensive definition of the concept. The first element of the concept of human security relates to the safety of people from such chronic threats as hunger, disease and repression.
The second refers to the protection of individuals from sudden and hurtful disruptions on the pattern of daily life — whether in homes, in jobs or in communities.
It means protecting people from critical and pervasive threats and situations, building on their strengths and aspirations. It also means creating systems that give people the building blocks of survival, dignity and livelihood.
There is a great emphasis on the people, rather than on territories, which are traditionally associated with the security of the state. However, insecurities of people at any level present threats to the stability of the state as an unstable state impacts on the personal security of its people.
The Commission on Human Security further stresses the need for conditions that are conducive to empower people to maximize their potential to make decisions and to freely participate in development. The pandemic increases the vulnerability of children, thus eroding their personal security. The loss of parental protection exposes children to physical violence in the form of abuses, including sexual abuse.
The common incidence of children infected by the HIV virus through sexual abuse is a case in point. The loss of parental protection also enhances risks of psychological imbalances among traumatized children, seriously affecting their relations with society. The children's opportunities to enjoy healthy and productive lives are destroyed.
Women are equally affected as the perpetuated gender inequalities leave them economically insecure further exposing them to the HIV infection and limiting their choices and opportunities in health, education and food production.
In addition, once HIV infected individuais become ill, they lose the physical ability to work or access food.