# Force length relationship biomechanics in sports

### Biomechanics of Sport: Muscle Force - Length Relationship

Biomechanics in Sports 29 KEY WORDS: Skeletal muscle, force-length relationship, force-velocity relationship, mechanics, performance optimization. The task in many sport skills is to cause a large change in the velocity of we are forced to emphasize duration of force application (Δt) in the impulse equation. Veja grátis o arquivo Biomechanics in sport enviado para a disciplina de Mashima, H. () Force-velocity relation and contractility in striated muscles.

## Length tension relationship

Move only your hand and forearm, and keep your upper arm and the rest of your body still. Try it a third time using your wrist, elbow, and shoulder. Move only your hand, forearm, and upper arm, and keep the rest of your body still. This technique is an improvement over the previous one, but you could still do better. Try it a fourth time throwing as you normally would with no constraints.

This throw was probably the fastest. In which throw were you able to exert a force against the ball for the longest amount of time?

For the shortest amount of time? The large impulse was the result of a relatively large average force being exerted on the ball for a relatively long time. You exerted the smallest impulse on the ball when you used only your wrist. The small impulse was the result of a relatively small average force being exerted on the ball for a relatively short time. The normal throwing technique involved more limbs in the throwing action, and you were able to increase the time during which you could exert a force on the ball and you were probably able to exert a larger average force.

The end result was a faster throw. Due to a longer period of force application, the ball had more time to speed up, and thus its velocity at release was faster.

An important thing to remember about the impulse—momentum relationship equation 3. An impulse will cause a change in momentum, and thus a change in velocity, in the direction of the force. If you want to change the velocity of an object in a specific direction, the force you apply, or some component of that force, must be in that specific direction. Which is the greater limitation on impulse—the force or the time?

What limited your throwing performance with the lighter object? Was your strength the limiting factor do you have to be exceptionally strong to throw a table tennis ball fast? What limited your throwing performance with the heavy object—strength force or technique duration of force application? More specifically, the duration of time during which you could exert a force on the ball was constrained.

It was very short. The ball sped up so quickly that your hand had a difficult time keeping up with it and still exerting a force on it.

### Biomechanics of Sport: Muscle Force - Velocity Relationship

Conversely in this experiment, the limiting factor for throwing the very heavy object was your strength, not your technique. Intensity of eccentric exercise, shift of optimum angle, and the magnitude of repeated-bout effect. Journal of applied physiology, 3 The effects of eccentric hamstring strength training on dynamic jumping performance and isokinetic strength parameters: Physical Therapy in Sport, 6 2 Fatigue affects peak joint torque angle in hamstrings but not in quadriceps.

Journal of sports sciences, 33 12 Shift of optimum angle after concentric-only exercise performed at long vs. Sport Sciences for Health, 12 1 Behavior of fascicles and the myotendinous junction of human medial gastrocnemius following eccentric strength training.

Inter-individual variability in the adaptation of human muscle specific tension to progressive resistance training. European journal of applied physiology, 6 The variation in isometric tension with sarcomere length in vertebrate muscle fibres.

## Understand the impact of force duration on performance

The Journal of physiology, 1 European journal of applied physiology, 99 4 Effect of hip flexion angle on hamstring optimum length after a single set of concentric contractions. Journal of sports sciences, 31 14 Short Muscle Length Eccentric Training.

Frontiers in Physiology, 7.

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Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. Impact of range of motion during ecologically valid resistance training protocols on muscle size, subcutaneous fat, and strength. Eccentric torque-producing capacity is influenced by muscle length in older healthy adults. The effects of repeated active stretches on tension generation and myoplasmic calcium in frog single muscle fibres. The Journal of Physiology, Pt 3 Changes in muscle architecture and performance during a competitive season in female softball players.

Effects of isometric quadriceps strength training at different muscle lengths on dynamic torque production. Journal of sports sciences, 33 18 Changes in the angle-force curve of human elbow flexors following eccentric and isometric exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 93 Effects of eccentric strength training on biceps femoris muscle architecture and knee joint range of movement.

European Journal of Applied Physiology, 6 Effects of eccentrically biased versus conventional weight training in older adults. Effect of resistance training on skeletal muscle-specific force in elderly humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 96 3 Differential adaptations to eccentric versus conventional resistance training in older humans.

Experimental physiology, 94 7 Muscle architecture and strength: Early skeletal muscle hypertrophy and architectural changes in response to high-intensity resistance training. Journal of Applied Physiology, 1 Quantitative analysis of sarcomere non-uniformities in active muscle following a stretch. Contraction type influences the human ability to use the available torque capacity of skeletal muscle during explosive efforts.

Proceedings of the Royal Society B: